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Spatial Domain Approaches for Real-Time Ownership Identification

Mir Shahriar Emami, Khairuddin Omar, Shahnorbanun Sahran, and Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah
The National University of Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract—An effective approach is a necessity for many digital watermarking applications including medical image ownership identification. To address this necessity, many watermarking techniques have been introduced by the researchers. Among the techniques introduced, spatial domain watermarking techniques are simpler and lower in computational cost due to direct embedding of the watermark. In contrast, transform domain and hybrid domain techniques require a lot of computation due to direct and inverse transformations. However, the spatial domain techniques are not robust enough against many watermarking attacks including geometric and image compression attacks. In this paper, the latest spatial domain approaches for real-time ownership identification have been studied. The results of this study shown that the spatial domain techniques using approximation approaches can provide real-time ownership identification even after geometric and JPEG2000 attacks

Index Terms—Ownership Identification, Real-time, Watermarking, Spatial Domain

Cite: Mir Shahriar Emami, Khairuddin Omar, Shahnorbanun Sahran, and Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah, "Spatial Domain Approaches for Real-Time Ownership Identification," Journal of Advances in Information Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1-4, February, 2014.doi:10.4304/jait.5.1.1-4
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